A rubric is a performance-based assessment tool. Teachers use rubrics to gather data about their students’ progress on a particular assignment or skill. Simple rubrics allow students to understand what is required in an assignment, how it will be graded, and how well they are progressing toward proficiency.
Rubrics can be both formative (ongoing) and summative (final) assessment tools for evaluating written work, projects, oral presentations, or any other class assignment. There are four types of rubrics: checklists, holistic rubrics, analytic rubrics, and developmental rubrics. Teachers, including homeschool parents, can refer to these simple rubric examples to formulate their own.
teacher grading A+ on essay paper
Rubrics as Checklists
These basic rubric examples ensure that all parts of the assignment are present. They help students keep track of each element of a project. Checklists also let teachers see whether a student fully participated in an assignment, but they aren’t as informative as other rubrics.
Example of a Checklist Rubric
Checklists are useful in all subject areas because they’re versatile and easy to understand. As long as each part of an assignment is present, the student receives full credit. An example of a science project checklist includes a column for students to check their work before turning it in.
Parts of a Cell Project Checklist
Includes a cover page with name and project title
Provides research notes from different sites
Cell model is made of Play Doh, candy, or other material
Cell model includes labels for each part of the cell
Provides explanation paragraph for each part of the cell
Checklists are handy to use and easy to grade. They measure participation and completion of a project rather than skills achieved, unlike holistic rubrics.
A general rubric that lists a few levels of performance is a holistic rubric. These rubrics usually combine criteria for a certain score into one level. Holistic rubrics include more information than a checklist and make good formative assessment tools.
Example of a Holistic Rubric
The typical A-F grading system is one example of a holistic rubric in which many skills are combined for one score. Here is another example of a holistic rubric for an oral presentation in social studies.
The presenter spoke clearly, held eye contact throughout the presentation, used more than two visual aids (including multimedia), stood up straight without hands in pockets, answered questions, and spoke for more than 5 minutes.
The presenter spoke clearly most of the time, looked down at notes but mostly held eye contact, used two visual aids (including multimedia), mostly stood up straight, answered one or two questions, and spoke for 4-5 minutes.
The presenter spoke clearly for part of the time, mostly looked at notes but made eye contact a few times, used two visual aids (no multimedia), stood up straight for part of the time, answered one question, and spoke for 2-4 minutes.
The presenter did not speak clearly, made eye contact a few times, used one visual aid (no multimedia), slouched or put hands in pockets a few times, did not answer questions, and spoke for 1-2 minutes
The presenter was difficult to understand, did not look up from notes, did not have visual aids, slouched or put hands in pockets for most of the presentation, did not answer questions, and spoke less than 1 minute.
The presenter did not prepare a presentation.
Although holistic rubrics are more complex than checklists, they aren’t as helpful for assessing specific skills within a project. It’s possible for students to score between two levels if they achieve some criteria but not others.
An analytic rubric assesses each aspect of an assignment. It awards a designated number of points to each part which adds up to the student’s final score. Projects with analytic rubrics take longer to grade, but they are informative to teachers as summative assessment tools.
Example of an Analytic Rubric
Analytic rubrics are useful in any subject in which the teacher needs to monitor discrete skills. Check out an example of an analytic essay for a language arts literary essay.
Comprehension of Text
Shows a thorough and thoughtful understanding of the text.
Shows a comprehensive understanding of the text.
Shows a basic understanding of the text.
Shows a limited understanding of the text.
Shows little understanding of the text.
Includes at least 3 specific textual details that clearly support each topic sentence. Uses at least 2 sentences of commentary per concrete detail.
Includes 3 specific textual details that generally support each topic sentence. Uses 2 sentences of commentary per concrete detail.
Includes 2-3 general textual details in each body paragraph. Uses 1 or 2 sentences of commentary per concrete detail.
Includes 1-2 general textual details in each body paragraph. Uses 1 sentence of commentary per concrete detail.
Does not include textual details.
Essay is well-organized, including a strong intro, thesis statement that directly connects to three body paragraphs, and a thought-provoking conclusion.
Essay is organized, and all necessary elements are present. The thesis is present but not well-supported.
Essay is somewhat organized. Intro includes a weak thesis statement. Body paragraphs do not connect well to the thesis.
Essay needs to be better organized. Thesis statement is hard to find. Includes fewer than three body paragraphs.
Essay is one paragraph or does not have any appearance of organization. No thesis statement.
Uses a variety of sentence types and precise, descriptive language to establish a formal voice.
Uses a variety of sentence types and some descriptive language to establish a formal voice.
Uses mostly simple and compound sentences. Includes some descriptive language.
Uses mostly simple sentences with little to no descriptive language.
Uses no sentence variety. Voice is not formal.
Sentence Fluency & Grammar
Contains 0-1 grammatical or syntax errors.
Contains 2-3 grammatical or syntax errors.
Contains 4-5 grammatical or syntax errors.
Contains more than 6 grammatical or syntax errors.
Contains serious grammatical or syntax errors.
All formal specifications were followed (12-point font in Times New Roman, 1-inch margins, double spaced).
One format specification was not followed (12-point font in Times New Roman, 1-inch margins, double spaced).
Two format specifications were not followed (12-point font in Times New Roman, 1-inch margins, double spaced).
Three or more format specifications were not followed (12-point font in Times New Roman, 1-inch margins, double spaced).
Paper was not typed.
Analytic rubrics are an effective form of communication between teacher and student. Expectations are clear and results are easy to understand. However, if you want to measure a student’s progress over the long term, you’ll need a developmental rubric.
While other types of rubrics measure one assignment or project, a developmental rubric tracks a student’s overall progress toward proficiency. These continuum rubrics can span one standard, one subject, or one skill. Developmental rubrics are more time-consuming for teachers than analytic rubrics, but they are the most informative type of assessment tool.
Example of a Developmental Rubric
The Common Core standards are an example of a developmental rubric with benchmarks over each grade level. Standards-based grading systems are becoming more common in modern classrooms. Check out an example of a developmental rubric designed to keep track of elementary math skills in operations and algebraic thinking.
4 - Exceeding Standard
3 - Proficient
2 - Progressing
1 - Not Meeting Standard
Problem-Solving with Addition and Subtraction
Student can use addition and subtraction to solve complex word problems.
Student can use addition and subtraction to solve basic word problems.
Student is learning to use addition and subtraction to solve word problems.
Student struggles to use addition and subtraction to solve word problems.
Add and Subtract within 20
Student can fluently add and subtract past 20 with a variety of strategies and has memorized all sums of one-digit numbers and some two-digit numbers.
Student can add and subtract up to 20 with a variety of strategies and has memorized all sums of one-digit numbers.
Student can add and subtract up to 20 with one strategy, and is learning additional strategies. They are working on memorizing sums of one-digit numbers.
Student has difficulty adding and subtracting up to 20. They don’t have one-digit number sums memorized.
Foundations for Multiplication
Student can identify if a group of over 20 objects contains an odd or even number using a variety of strategies, and can explain their thought process.
Student can identify if a group of 10-20 objects contains an odd or even number using a variety of strategies.
Student knows the difference between odd and even numbers, and is learning how to identify whether a group of objects contains an odd or even number.
Student doesn’t yet know the difference between odd and even numbers.
Unlike other rubrics, developmental rubrics indicate an ongoing learning process. They measure skill rather than participation and effort levels. Students will ideally start at the Progressing level at the beginning of the unit or school year and will end at the Proficient level.
Making Your Own Rubric
No matter which type of rubric you use, there are several ways to ensure that it’s an effective learning tool. Here are some tips for creating a rubric:
- Be detailed. Students are more likely to meet requirements when they know exactly what you’re expecting.
- Provide rubrics at the very beginning of the project. No one likes surprises.
- No rubric can replace your own comments. While rubrics allow you to measure skills, students still need positive reinforcement about their work.
- Make rubric scores align directly with student grades. Parents and students can easily see why they lost a specific number of points.
- Use student-friendly language. Some academic language is helpful, but rubrics are just as valuable for students as they are for you.
If you’re ready to design your own rubric, start with the customizable rubric template we’ve provided here. You can add your own requirements, point system, and objectives. Happy grading!
- Step 1: Define Your Goal. ...
- Step 2: Choose a Rubric Type. ...
- Step 3: Determine Your Criteria. ...
- Step 4: Create Your Performance Levels. ...
- Step 5: Write Descriptors for Each Level of Your Rubric.
A rubric is a performance-based assessment tool. Teachers use rubrics to gather data about their students' progress on a particular assignment or skill. Simple rubrics allow students to understand what is required in an assignment, how it will be graded, and how well they are progressing toward proficiency.What are the 4 types of rubrics? ›
- Analytic Rubrics.
- Developmental Rubrics.
- Holistic Rubrics.
This rubric is used to score students' responses to medium constructed-response items. These items require the student to use problem-solving skills that may require the construction of a graph or a model, the extension of a pattern, or the use of geometric relationships and spatial reasoning.How do I write a teaching rubric? ›
- Define the purpose of the assignment/assessment for which you are creating a rubric. ...
- Decide what kind of rubric you will use: a holistic rubric or an analytic rubric? ...
- Define the criteria. ...
- Design the rating scale. ...
- Write descriptions for each level of the rating scale. ...
- Create your rubric.
Generally speaking, a high-quality analytic rubric should: Consist of 3-5 performance levels (Popham, 2000; Suskie, 2009). Include two or more performance criteria, and the labels for the criteria should be distinct, clear, and meaningful (Brookhart, 2013; Nitko & Brookhart, 2007; Popham, 2000; Suskie, 2009).What are good rubrics? ›
Criteria: A good rubric must have a list of specific criteria to be rated. These should be uni-dimensional, so students and raters know exactly what the expectations are. Levels of Performance: The scoring scale should include 3-5 levels of performance (e.g., Excellent/Good/Fair/Poor).What is a general rubric? ›
General rubrics use criteria and descriptions that can be used across a variety of tasks, for example, a rubric on teamwork and collaboration. Task-specific rubrics are specific to the task for which they are applied.Which type of rubric is mostly used by the teachers? ›
Analytic rubrics are more common because teachers typically want to assess each criterion separately, particularly for assignments that involve a larger number of criteria. It becomes more and more difficult to assign a level of performance in a holistic rubric as the number of criteria increases.What are the 5 basic steps in developing rubrics? ›
- Think through your learning objectives. ...
- Decide what kind of scale you will use. ...
- Describe the characteristics of student work at each point on your scale. ...
- Test your rubric on student work. ...
- Use your rubric to give constructive feedback to students.
If you have a 4-‐point scale (4 being best) and 4 criteria then the highest score, or 100% is 16; the lowest score is 4 or 64%.What is a single point rubric? ›
A single-point rubric outlines the standards a student has to meet to complete the assignment; however, it leaves the categories outlining success or shortcoming open-ended. This relatively new approach creates a host of advantages for teachers and students.How do you make scoring rubrics? ›
- Identify the characteristics of what you are assessing. ...
- Review the standard of success for the learning outcome. ...
- Describe the best work you could expect using these characteristics. ...
- Describe the worst acceptable product using these characteristics. ...
- Describe an unacceptable product.
There are two types of rubrics and of methods for evaluating students' efforts: holistic and analytic rubrics.What is a rubric format? ›
A rubric is a scoring guide used to evaluate performance, a product, or a project. It has three parts: 1) performance criteria; 2) rating scale; and 3) indicators. For you and your students, the rubric defines what is expected and what will be assessed.What are educational rubrics? ›
A rubric is a useful grading tool which can help instructors to grade students' work in a more consistent, reliable and unbiased manner. A well-designed rubric can help students to identify their strengths and weaknesses and be more objective about their own quality of work.What are the 4 types of assessments? ›
A Guide to Types of Assessment: Diagnostic, Formative, Interim, and Summative.What are rubrics for teachers? ›
A rubric is a type of scoring guide that assesses and articulates specific components and expectations for an assignment. Rubrics can be used for a variety of assignments: research papers, group projects, portfolios, and presentations.What are rubrics in lesson plan? ›
When you use a rubric to evaluate lessons, you work with a standardized set of criteria and clear descriptors of your expectations. Using a rubric to evaluate lesson plans is also a great way to model a strong assessment practice for future teachers!How do you scoring rubrics help teachers teach? ›
' Teacher Eeva Reeder says using scoring rubrics 'demystifies grades and helps students see that the whole object of schoolwork is attainment and refinement of problem-solving and life skills. ' Rubrics also help teachers authentically monitor a student's learning process and develop and revise a lesson plan.
Holistic. All criteria are assessed as a single score. Holistic rubrics are good for evaluating overall performance on a task. Because only one score is given, holistic rubrics tend to be easier to score.What makes a strong rubric? ›
A "good" rubric should be able to be used by various teachers and have them all arrive at similar scores (for a given assignment). Reliability also can refer to time (for example, if you are scoring your 100th essay - the rubric allows you to judge the 100th essay with the same criteria that you judged the 1st essay).What rubric is good for formative assessment? ›
Analytic and holistic rubrics
For most classroom purposes, analytic rubrics are best. Focusing on the criteria one at a time is better for instruction and better for formative assessment because students can see what aspects of their work need what kind of attention.
A rubric is a scoring tool that explicitly represents the performance expectations for an assignment or piece of work. A rubric divides the assigned work into component parts and provides clear descriptions of the characteristics of the work associated with each component, at varying levels of mastery.What are 5 features of a highly effective rubric? ›
- 1.) Clearly delineated points. ...
- 2.) Subcategories that relate to main points. ...
- 3.) 100 total points. ...
- 4.) Total points per section with breakdowns in subsections. ...
- 5.) Include room for comments. ...
- Available Printable Rubrics By Category. ...
- Learn All About Rubrics.
The Task-Specific Rubric
It clearly defines the criteria for each assignment. What is great about this rubric is that it makes expectations for each assignment very clear. Students can use this rubric to assess their success very easily. It also makes grading easier for teachers, because of its specificity.
Rubrics provide students with valuable information about the degree of which a specific learning outcome has been achieved. They provide students with concrete feedback that displays areas of strength and areas in need of improvement. Students can use this feedback as a tool to further develop their abilities.What are scoring rubrics and how do teachers use them? ›
A rubric is a document that describes the criteria by which students' assignments are graded. Rubrics can be helpful for: Making grading faster and more consistent (reducing potential bias). Communicating your expectations for an assignment to students before they begin.What is the first step in writing rubrics? ›
Step 1: Review Learning Objectives
Identify what you want students to do or to accomplish as the learning outcomes. The ASU Objective Builder is a great way to identify objectives for your course.
Students in an AP class with weighted grading receive a five-point weighted average for each of the four-letter grades: As, Bs, Cs, and Ds. As a result, a student who only takes AP classes and receives A's will have a 5.0 GPA.
A rubric is a scoring tool that explicitly describes the instructor's performance expectations for an assignment or piece of work. A rubric identifies: criteria: the aspects of performance (e.g., argument, evidence, clarity) that will be assessed.What is a 5 point rating scale? ›
|5 points (Pass)||Excellent. Exceptional Mastery. Much more than acceptable.|
|4 points (Pass)||Very Good. Full Performance Behaviours. Above average.|
|3 points (Pass)||Good. Acceptable. Satisfactory Average|
|2 points (Fail)||Weak. Less than Acceptable|
There are two types of rubrics and of methods for evaluating students' efforts: holistic and analytic rubrics. Select each rubric type identified below to see an example.What are rubrics for students? ›
Rubrics help students:
- Understand expectations and components of an assignment.
- Become more aware of their learning process and progress.
- Improve work through timely and detailed feedback.
A rubric is an assessment tool that clearly indicates achievement criteria across all the components of any kind of student work, from written to oral to visual. It can be used for marking assignments, class participation, or overall grades. There are two types of rubrics: holistic and analytical.What makes a good teacher rubric? ›
Criteria: A good rubric must have a list of specific criteria to be rated. These should be uni-dimensional, so students and raters know exactly what the expectations are. Levels of Performance: The scoring scale should include 3-5 levels of performance (e.g., Excellent/Good/Fair/Poor).What are general rubrics? ›
General rubrics use criteria and descriptions that can be used across a variety of tasks, for example, a rubric on teamwork and collaboration. Task-specific rubrics are specific to the task for which they are applied.What is a single-point rubric? ›
A single-point rubric outlines the standards a student has to meet to complete the assignment; however, it leaves the categories outlining success or shortcoming open-ended. This relatively new approach creates a host of advantages for teachers and students.What is a checklist rubric? ›
A rubric is a tool that has a list of criteria, similar to a checklist, but also contains descriptors in a performance scale which inform the student what different levels of accomplishment look like.