In my previous article, I introduced the term Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) and talk about how it might be used to support intelligence needs. OSINT refers to all the information that is publicly available, many estimates show that 90 percent of useful information acquired by intelligence services comes from public sources (in other words, OSINT sources). OSINT sources are distinguished from other forms of intelligence because they must be legally accessible by the public without breaching any copyright, patents or privacy laws.
That’s why they are considered “publicly available.”
Social media sites open up numerous opportunities for online investigations because of the vast amount of useful information located in one place. For example, you can get a great deal of personal information about any person worldwide by just checking their Facebook page. Such information often includes the person of interest’s connections on Facebook, political views, religion, ethnicity, country of origin, personal images and videos, spouse name (or marital status), home and work addresses, frequently visited locations, social activities (e.g., Sports, theater, and restaurant visits), work history, education, important event dates (such as birth date, graduation date, relationship date, or the date when left/start a new job), and social interactions.
This can all be found in one Facebook profile.
Social media intelligence (SOCMINT) is a sub-branch of Open Source Intelligence (OSINT), it refers to the information collected from social media websites. The data available on social media sites can be either open to the public (e.g., Public posts on Facebook or LinkedIn) or private. Private information -such as contents shared with friends circle- cannot be accessed without proper permission form the creator.
Data available on social media sites can be classified into two categories:
- The original content posted by the user – such as a Facebook text content or an uplaoded image/video.
- The metadata associated with original content – multimedia files metadata, the date/time and geo-location info associated with the posted content.
In this article, I will introduce you to the SOCMINT term and demonstrate how we can use a plethora of tools, online services and techniques to gather intelligence from social media sites to support a variety of intelligence needs. However, before I begin, do you think collecting intelligence from social media platforms is considered legal?
There is a debate between privacy advocates and OSINT researchers about whether the information available on social media sites is OSINT. Although the majority of social media sites require their users to register before accessing site contents in full, many surveys show that social media users expect to have some form of privacy for their online activities (even when posting content with public access). However, OSINT experts generally consider information shared on social media sites as belonging to the OSINT domain because it is public information shared on public online platforms and thus it can be exploited for intelligence purposes.
Source: Hassan, Nihad. “Chapter 5.” Open Source Intelligence Methods and Tools: A Practical Guide to Online Intelligence.
Using the information gathered from social media sites in a legal case is generally allowed under these two conditions:
- When acquiring permission from a court to gather information about a specific user, a court order is sent to the intended social media site to hand the information to authorities officially.
- If the information is available publicly (e.g., public posts, images, or videos), then law enforcement can acquire it without a permit, which is the essence of the OSINT gathering concept.
Private OSINT gatherers should have a legal basis when collecting personal information about targets, data protection laws (especially the GDPR in Europe) impose restrictions on the way online investigators collect, process, and retain personal information of citizens. Discussing the legal issues surrounding OSINT is beyond the scope of this article, however, as a rule of thumb, make sure to have a legal intent when collecting personal information from public sources and make sure to destroy this information as soon as you finish your investigation without any delay.
People interact with social media sites for different purposes. The following are the general interactions used across different social media sites:
- Post/comment: People access social sites to post or write paragraphs of text that can be seen by other users. Such posts can also include user’s geographical info (In Facebook, they call this feature, a “Check in”).
- Reply: This is a text message (can also be an image, video, or URL) that replies to another user’s post, update status, or comment.
- Multimedia content (images and videos): Multimedia is popular; a user can upload a video or image as a part of their post. Many social platforms allow their users to upload multiple images/videos to form an album. Live streams also are available on many social platforms such as Facebook, Twitter and YouTube. This feature allows a user to broadcast live videos and display the recording on their profiles for later viewing.
- Social interactions: This is the essence of social media sites, where people get connected online by sending/responding to other user’s request.
- Metadata: The results from the sum of user interactions with the social platform. Examples include the date and time when a video/image was uploaded, the date and time when a friend request was accepted, geolocation data—if enabled—of the uploaded multimedia file or post, and the type of device used to upload the contents (mobile or a standard computer).
SOCMINT is interested in gathering all these content types, however the ability to do this depends on the privacy control level set by each user when publishing posts/updates online. For example, it is not possible to see other people’s updates on Facebook if they restrict a post’s visibility to some friend circles or set it to “Only me.”
Many people use the terms social media and social networking interchangeably to refer to Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, and related social platforms. This is not absolutely wrong, but it is not accurate because social media is the main umbrella that contains other categories like “social networking” that holds sites like Facebook.
The following are the main social media types classified according to function:
- Social networking: This allows people to connect with other people and businesses (brands) online to share information and ideas. Example include Facebook and LinkedIn.
- Photo sharing: Such websites are dedicated to sharing photos between users online. Example include: Instagram & Flicker.
- Video sharing: Such websites are dedicated to sharing videos, including live video broadcasts. The most popular one is YouTube. Please note that Facebook and Twitter also offer live video broadcast service.
- Blogs: This is a type of the informational website containing a set of posts—belonging to one topic or subject—organized in descending order according to the publish date. The most popular blogging platforms are WordPress and Blogger, which is powered by Google.
- Microblog: This allows users to publish a short text paragraph (which can be associated with an image or video) or a link (URL) to be shared with other audience online. Twitter is the most popular example.
- Forums (message board): This is one of the oldest types of social media. Users exchange ideas and discussions in a form of posted messages and replies. Reddit is an example.
- Social gaming: This refers to playing games online with other players in different locations. It has gained more popularity recently. KAMAGAMES and zynga are examples of this type.
- Social bookmarking: These websites offer a similar function to your web browser’s typical bookmark. However, they allow you to do this online and share your Internet bookmarks among your friends in addition to adding annotations and tags to your saved bookmarks. Example include: Atavi and Pinterest
- Product/service review: These websites allow their users to review—give feedback—about any product or service they have used. Yelp and Angie’s List (www.angieslistbusinesscenter.com) are examples of this type.
Now we have a good understanding of the different types of social media sites, it’s time to begin talking about how to use different tools and techniques to acquire intelligence from these platforms, we will limit our discussion to the most two popular social media sites which are: Facebook and Twitter.
Facebook is the most popular social media platform,it falls under the social networking type and has the largest users base on earth. Facebook was offering an advanced semantic search engine to search within its database by using natural English language phrases and keywords. This semantic search engine called Graph Search and was first introduced in early 2013; it allows Facebook users to type in their queries in the Facebook search box to return accurate results based on their questions/phrases or combined keywords. For example, you can type: Pages liked by ********* replacing the asterisks with the target’s Facebook username, to return a list of pages liked by the specified user.
In 2019, Facebook has removed the Graph search functionality, although, users are still able to utilize Graph search, however, they need to build their graph search queries manually.
After removing its direct support to Graph search, Facebook has improved its search functionitly makng it more accurate, it also adds many filters (see Figure 1) to refine your search as neccessary. Keep in mind you should login to your Facebook account first to use the search options.
Figure 1: Using Standard Facebook Keyword search, notice the number of filters to refine your returned results
There are several online services for searching Facebook without creating customized search queries, the following list the most popular one:
- Facebook Graph Searcher from Intelligence X (https://intelx.io/tools?tab=facebook): You can search for posts from a specific date or month, post from a specific user posting about something, you can also search for posts posted by unknown users which is beneficial for online investigations (see Figure 2).
Figure 2: Searching Facebook using Intelligence X
2. Sowdust (https://sowdust.github.io/fb-search): This is another online tool to show how the current Facebook search function works, you can search for posts from a specific user/page, restrict to posts published in group or restricting it to specific location. You can filter by Start/End date and Keyword. Other search options include searching for photos, pages, places among others (see Figure 3).
Figure 3: Sowdust interface to search Facebook
- SearchBook (https://github.com/sowdust/searchbook): This is a Firefox add-on (a version is also available for Chrome browser) for executing some Graph-like searches against Facebook. The Add-on functionality is based on the research article Facebook graph search workaround published by Social Links (https://mtg-bi.com/blog/tpost/aiaxk4xl4d-facebook-graph-search-workaround). I tested this extension under Firefox, however, it broke many times during usage.
Legal notice! Using customized code to manipulate Facebook search queries might be against Facebook Terms of Service and even against the law in many countries, so be careful with this regard.
There are many online services that simplify the process of acquiring/analyzing information from Facebook accounts. The following are the most useful ones:
- Lookup ID (https://lookup-id.com): This site helps you to find Facebook personal IDs. This ID is necessary when using any of the previous online services –mentioned previously- used to compliment Facebook standard keyword search.
- Facebook Page Barometer (http://barometer.agorapulse.com): This site gives statistics and insight about specific Facebook profiles or pages.
- Information for Law Enforcement Authorities (https://www.facebook.com/safety/groups/law/guidelines): Offers information and legal guidelines for law enforcement/authorities when seeking information from Facebook and Instagram.
- A directory of free tools and online services for searching within Facebook can be found at: https://osint.link/osint-part2/#facebook
Twitter has a built-incorner search functionality located in the upper-right side of the screen—when using the Twitter web interface—after logging into your Twitter account. A simple Twitter search allows you to perform a basic search within the Twitter database.
However, do not underestimate this little box, as you can add advanced search operators—similar to Google advanced search operators known as Google Dorks—to your search query to force it to dive deep and return accurate results, as you are going to see next.
To begin your search against Twitter database, it is advisable to go to the Twitter Advanced search at https://twitter.com/search-advanced , from this page, you can customize search filters to specific date ranges, people and more.
Twitter Advanced Search Operators
Similar to Google, Twitter allows you to use specialized operators to find related tweets more precisely. Twitter search operators are already available in the Twitter developer site, go to https://developer.twitter.com/en/docs/tweets/rules-and-filtering/overview/standard-operators to view them (see Figure 4).
Twitter search operators can be incorporated with other criteria to create more advanced search queries to find related tweets more precisely, the following are some advanced Twitter search query to start your search with.
- The negation operator (-) is used to exclude specific keywords or phrases from search results. Example: virus –computer
2. To search for hashtags use the (#)operator followed by the search keyword. For example: #OSINT
3. To search for tweets sent up to a specific date, use the (until) operator. Here’s an example: OSINT until:2019-11-30(this will return all tweets containing OSINT and sent until date November 30, 2019).
4. To search for tweets sent since a specific date, use the (since) operator followed by the date. Here’s an example: OSINT since:2019-11-30 (this will return all tweets containing OSINT and sent since November 11, 2019).
5. Use the (images) keyword to return tweets that contain an image within it. Here’s an example: OSINT Filter:images(this will return all tweets that contain the keyword OSINT and have an image embedded within them).
6. To return tweets with video embedded with them, use the (videos) keyword (similar to the images filter). Here’s an example: OSINT Filter:videos
7. To search for video uploaded using the Twitter Periscope service, use the (Periscope) filter. Here’s an example: OSINT filter:periscope (this will search for all tweets containing the OSINT keyword with a Periscope video URL).
8. To return tweets with either image or video, use the (media) operator. Here’s an example: OSINT Filter:media
9. To return tweets that contain a link (URL) within them, use the (links) keyword. Here’s an example: OSINT Filter:links
10. To return tweets that contain a link (URL) and hold a specific word within that URL, use the URL keyword. Here is an example: OSINT url:amazon this will return all tweets that containing OSINT and a URL with the word “amazon” anywhere within it (see Figure 5).
11. To return tweets from verified users only (verified accounts have a blue check mark near their names) (see Figure 6), use the (Verified) operator. Here’s an example: OSINT Filter:verified
12. Use the (min_retweets) operator followed by a number. Here’s an example: OSINT min_retweets:50 (this will return all tweets containing the OSINT search keyword that have been retweeted at least 50 times)
13. Use (min_faves) followed by a number to return all tweets with NUMBER or more likes. Here’s an example: OSINT min_faves:11 (this will return all tweets that have at least 11 or more likes and that contain the OSINT search keyword)
14. To limit Twitter returned results to a specific language, use the (lang) operator. Here’s an example: OSINT lang:en (this will return all tweets containing OSINT in the English language only). To see a list of Twitter-supported language codes, go to https://developer.twitter.com/en/docs/twitter-for-websites/twitter-for-websites-supported-languages/overview.
15. To search for tweets with a negative attitude use the following symbol :( For example: OSINT :( will return all tweets containing the keyword OSINT written in a negative attitude.
We can combine more multiple Twitter search operator to perform a more precise search. For example, type “OSINT” from:darknessgate -Filter:replies lang:en to get only the tweets containing the exact phrase OSINT from the user darknessgate that are not replies to other users and in the English language only.
Online Twitter Analysis Services
The following are online services to help you find information on Twitter:
- All My Tweets (https://www.allmytweets.net): View all public tweets posted by any Twitter account on one page.
2. Trendsmap (https://www.trendsmap.com): This shows you the most popular trends, hashtags, and keywords on Twitter from anywhere around the world.
3. First Tweet (http://ctrlq.org/first): Find the first tweet of any search keyword or link.
4. Social Bearing (https://socialbearing.com/search/followers): Analyze Twitter followers of any particular account (a maximum of 10,000 followers can be loaded).
5. Spoonbill (https://spoonbill.io): Monitor profile changes from the people you follow on Twitter (see Figure 7).
Most internet users have more than one social media account, according to statista, average number of social media accounts per internet user was 8.5 in 2018. This information is useful and should be present in our mind when searching social media sites, for instance, many people prefer to use the same username in multiple social media platforms. If we know the username of one social media account of the target, we can search to see where else this username is used on other social media platforms.
You can check specific usernames to see where they are being used (e.g., social media Sites) or to know whether a particular username really exists using any of the following free online services.
1. Check User Name (http://checkusernames.com): Check the use of a specific username on 160 social networks. This is useful to discover target social media accounts to see if they are using the same username on multiple platforms.
2. Namechk (https://namechk.com): Check to see whether a specified username is used for major domain names and social media sites (see Figure 8).
3. Namecheckr (https://www.namecheckr.com): Check a domain and social username availability across multiple networks.
4. User Search (https://www.usersearch.org): Scan 45 popular social media websites.
5. UserRecon (https://github.com/thelinuxchoice/userrecon): A Linux tool to find usernames across over 75 social networks.
6. Sherlock (https://sherlock-project.github.io): Sherlock Project, can be used to find usernames across many social networks. It requires Python 3.6 or higher and works on MacOS, Linux and Windows.
The psychological status of the person posting the contents on their profile can also give important information, even more than the content itself (in some cases). For instance, the true identity of an anonymous Twitter account can be revealed by performing linguistic analysis of the target account.
In addition, people can be tracked online by examining the way they use language when they chat or when they broadcast their thoughts online (for example, the way a target uses capitalization, omits or includes words, and pronounces some words). The advances in artificial intelligence systems will make analyzing social media accounts more effective and will help examiners uncover the true identity of anonymous social media accounts.
This online service (https://tone-analyzer-demo.mybluemix.net) offers free linguistic analysis to detect human feelings found in text such as tweets, emails, and Facebook messages (see Figure 9).
In today’s digital age, it is rare to see an Internet user who does not have at least one account on one or more social media site. People use social media services to post all types of contents online such as photos, videos, text messages, and geolocation data. They also mention their education, employment history, and the addresses where they live. Personal information such as social connections, places visited, habits, likes and dislikes, family members, spouse, and more can all be found easily. Although social networking sites allow their users to tighten their privacy controls to prevent others from seeing posted content, few people care about such issues and post many of their activities—especially text posts and check-ins— in public status. This makes a large volume of accessible data about citizens’ lives readily available to different kinds of online investigations, and this is the essence of “social intelligence” (SOCINT).
1. Author dedicated website for free OSINT resources: www.OSINT.link
2. Author Book: Open Source Intelligence Methods and Tools: A Practical Guide to Online Intelligence, Publisher: Apress; 1 edition, ISBN 978-1-4842-3212-5 By Nihad A. Hassan
About The Author: Nihad A. Hassan (@DarknessGate) is an independent information security consultant, digital forensics and cybersecurity expert, online
blogger, and book author. He has been actively conducting research on different areas of information security for more than a decade. His current work focuses on cyber OSINT, digital forensics, antiforensics techniques and digital privacy. Nihad is the author of a number of books on digital forensics, open source intelligence, digital security, ransomware and cybersecurity.
Is Socmint part of Osint? ›
To summarize, Social Media Intelligence (SOCMINT) is a type of Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) that focuses on the collection and analysis of data from social media platforms.Can social media be used to gather intelligence? ›
Social media intelligence allows one to utilize intelligence gathering from social media sites, using both intrusive or non-intrusive means, from open and closed social networks. This type of intelligence gathering is one element of OSINT (Open- Source Intelligence).What is Osint used for? ›
What is OSINT Used For? By gathering publicly available sources of information about a particular target an attacker – or friendly penetration tester – can profile a potential victim to better understand its characteristics and to narrow down the search area for possible vulnerabilities.What are the types of Osint? ›
- Type 1: News and Media. ...
- Type 2: Grey Literature. ...
- Type 3: Social Media. ...
- Type 4: Dark Web.
Social media intelligence (SOCMINT) is the process of collecting and analyzing publicly social media data to gather meaningful insights. This data supports national security applications like information environment assessments and crisis response.What is a social media monitoring tool? ›
Similar to search engines that send crawlers to the far reaches of the Internet, social media monitoring is an algorithm-based tool that crawls sites and continuously indexes them. Once sites are indexed, they can be searched based on queries or strings.What are the elements of social media intelligence? ›
Instead, you can focus on the four key elements of brand equity:
The first step towards gaining social media intelligence is data. This data is collected from social networking sites via a feed known as an Application Protocol Interface (called an API for short). By itself, this data doesn't represent social media intelligence – although it has the potential to do so.Who build the technology that allows Socmint? ›
Who builds the technologies that allow SOCMINT? There are two industries creating surveillance capabilities in social media intelligence: the surveillance industry and the marketing industry. Both industries are creating services and capabilities for both public and private sector users.How do hackers use OSINT? ›
Hackers can use OSINT techniques to find vulnerabilities in an organization's web applications and infrastructure. This info could be used to exploit these weaknesses and gain access to sensitive data in their network. The accuracy of data found online can be unreliable.
How do I get started in OSINT? ›
To begin, select a single piece of information such as your full name, email address or username/alias, then start Google dorking and searching social media sites. Googles multitude of search operators is one of your most powerful skills, use it to find as much initial information as possible.Is OSINT a hacker? ›
OSINT does not require its exponents to hack into systems or use private credentials to access data. Viewing someone's public profile on social media is OSINT; using their login details to unearth private information is not. In intelligence agency terms, OSINT is also information drawn from non-classified sources.Are OSINT tools Legal? ›
Is OSINT illegal? While OSINT techniques are often used by malicious hackers as reconnaissance before they launch an illegal attack, for the most part the tools and techniques themselves are perfectly legal—after all, they're designed to help you home in on data that's published or otherwise in the public view.Is OSINT really intelligence? ›
OSINT is defined in the United States of America by Public Law 109-163 as cited by both the U.S. Director of National Intelligence and the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), as intelligence "produced from publicly available information that is collected, exploited, and disseminated in a timely manner to an appropriate ...How do you collect intelligence information? ›
- Covert Human Intelligence Sources or “agents”. ...
- Directed surveillance, such as following and/or observing targets;
- Interception of communications, such as monitoring emails or phone calls;
What Does Social Computing (SoC) Mean? Social computing is interactive and collaborative behavior between computer users. Personal computing is an individual user activity in that one user generally commands computing.Is Social Intelligence real? ›
Social intelligence refers to a person's ability to understand and manage interpersonal relationships. It is distinct from a person's IQ or “book smarts.” It includes an individual's ability to understand, and act on, the feelings, thoughts, and behaviors of other people.What is social media Marketing intelligence? ›
Social marketing intelligence is the method of extrapolating valuable information from social network interactions and data flows that can enable companies to launch new products and services into the market at greater speed and lower cost.What is the 80 20 rule in social media? ›
The 80/20 rule indicates that 80% of social media posts should be useful to your audience — meaning, it educates, entertains, or offers a solution to their problems — and only 20% should explicitly promote your business.What is the 90 10 rule in regards to social media posting? ›
It means, spend 10% of your social media time talking about yourself and the other 90% paying attention and listening to your network. It's simple human psychology. People love the people who make them feel good.
How do I set up social media monitoring? ›
- Think beyond your handle. ...
- Monitor keywords important to your industry. ...
- Keep an eye on your competitors. ...
- Identify power users on social networks. ...
- Include your customer support team. ...
- Have a crisis plan in place. ...
- Listen to more than just Twitter.
- #1: Simple and Friendly User Interface (UI) ...
- #2: Visually Appealing and Accessible Design. ...
- #3: Secure Login. ...
- #4: Networking Element. ...
- #5: Content Sharing Method. ...
- #6: Messaging System. ...
- #7: Open Forum.
- #8: Real-Time Notifications.
- The Five Key Elements of Social Media. ...
- Listening. ...
- Content Marketing. ...
- Engagement. ...
- Promotion & Advertising. ...
- Measurement & Analytics.
Social intelligence radically alters this process. Numerous tools allow analysts to create dynamic maps that pinpoint where information and expertise reside and to track new data in real time. The most effective way of obtaining new information is to engage a carefully mapped network of experts on specific subjects.What is a social listening tool? ›
A social media listening tool is a software that monitors and analyzes online conversations about your brand, a specific topic, your competitors or anything else that's relevant to your company. It pulls in mentions of specified keywords and helps marketers analyze these mentions.Which is the correct order of the 5 steps in the social media journey? ›
- Step 1: Getting your mindset right. When we talk about social media success, the first step to success is getting your mindset right. ...
- Step 2: Content Creation. For content creation, make sure that you are simplifying your message as much as possible. ...
- Step 3: Distribution. ...
- Step 4: Engagement. ...
- Step 5: Scaling the system.
To build community, start conversations, deepen existing relationships, keep up with brand mentions and watch for customer service opportunities, you have to listen. As you probably know from experience, social listening can be a job in and of itself, nevermind your other social media marketing duties.What is an example of OSINT? ›
OSINT examples include: Asking questions on any search engine. Research public forums on how to fix your computer. Watch a youtube video on how to make a birthday cake.Why do analysts use OSINT? ›
OSINT analysts use specialized recon tools to harvest relevant data. These tools and techniques are legal as they aid in data collection, analysis, and processing from publicly available information.Is social engineering OSINT? ›
Open‐Source Intelligence (OSINT) is an increasingly popular tactic that hackers are using to target organizations and their employees. OSINT is the act of scraping data from publicly available sources. Attackers use the data obtained from OSINT gathering to craft realistic social engineering campaigns.
Where can I practice OSINT? ›
https://www.reddit.com/r/Intelligence/ https://www.thecipherbrief.com/ https://www.bellingcat.com/tag/osint/ https://www.wired.com/category/security/Is OSINT a skill? ›
Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) are skills used for reconnaissance and data gathering using publicly available information (i.e,, search engines, public repositories, social media, etc.) to gain in-depth knowledge on a topic or target.What are the phases of OSINT? ›
Five steps of the OSINT cycle consists of Planning, Gathering, Analysis, Dissemination and Feedback.What is OSINT testing? ›
OSINT stands for Open Source Intelligence. OSINT is a process to collect data/intelligence about people, companies, and organizations using an extensive collection of sources including the Internet.What is OSINT in cyber security? ›
Open source intelligence (OSINT) is the act of gathering and analyzing publicly available data for intelligence purposes.How is OSINT used in social engineering? ›
OSINT gives attackers the information they need to launch a campaign on your organization and employees. These attacks can range from social engineering vectors (spear phishing emails, vishing calls, physical security) to network or application attacks.What Osint means? ›
Open source intelligence (OSINT) is the act of gathering and analyzing publicly available data for intelligence purposes.What is defined as a unique space run by private companies that impose their own rules somewhat like a shop or a mall? ›
Social networking sites are a unique space. They are run by private companies that impose their own rules – somewhat like a shop or a mall.How do hackers use OSINT? ›
Hackers can use OSINT techniques to find vulnerabilities in an organization's web applications and infrastructure. This info could be used to exploit these weaknesses and gain access to sensitive data in their network. The accuracy of data found online can be unreliable.How do I get started in OSINT? ›
To begin, select a single piece of information such as your full name, email address or username/alias, then start Google dorking and searching social media sites. Googles multitude of search operators is one of your most powerful skills, use it to find as much initial information as possible.
How do you collect intelligence information? ›
- Covert Human Intelligence Sources or “agents”. ...
- Directed surveillance, such as following and/or observing targets;
- Interception of communications, such as monitoring emails or phone calls;
The first step towards gaining social media intelligence is data. This data is collected from social networking sites via a feed known as an Application Protocol Interface (called an API for short). By itself, this data doesn't represent social media intelligence – although it has the potential to do so.What are the elements of social media intelligence? ›
Instead, you can focus on the four key elements of brand equity:
Social marketing intelligence is the method of extrapolating valuable information from social network interactions and data flows that can enable companies to launch new products and services into the market at greater speed and lower cost.